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Application of PGA in Yogurt
Yogurt can be divided into two categories, namely coagulation type and stirring type. Coagulation type yogurt is directly fermented into a solid state. After the fermentation of this type of product is completed, it needs to be sold under refrigeration. If juice is added, it tends to settle at the bottom of the set yogurt, with the rest of the fermented mix at the top. Stirred yogurt is fermented in a larger fermentation tank, and then pumped to a storage tank after stirring, cooling, and fermentation. Set and stirred yoghurts have their own set of drawbacks, such as a loose product texture, or a bland product due to whey syneresis, especially when set yogurt has been spooned out and has not been left for a while. Timely consumption, the phenomenon of syneresis is more obvious. Syneresis results in a rough surface of stirred yogurt, and although stabilizers are often added to yogurt, sedimentation occurs in most products. Adding food additives such as gelatin, carrageenan, pectin, and starch to yogurt can prevent syneresis, but yogurt using gelatin as a stabilizer is banned by vegetarians and kosher, and the effect is not ideal; carrageenan is acidic in low pH Not very stable in dairy products; yogurt with added pectin as a stabilizer has a hard texture and is expensive to produce. Adding starch makes the yogurt too sticky and high in calories.
Compared with other commonly used food additives, PGA is more suitable for the production of yogurt. It has the following advantages: (1) PGA can give yogurt products a natural texture and taste, which can be well presented even under the condition of reduced milk solids content; (2) It can effectively prevent the product from forming The beautiful rough uneven surface makes the appearance of the product smooth and shiny; (3) It is fully integrated with all other ingredients, can be applied in any pH range during fermentation, and is easily and uniformly dispersed in the yogurt under the condition of gentle stirring middle. PGA is excellent in dispersibility and solubility, and is very stable during the whole heating process; (4) PGA not only acts as a stabilizer in yogurt, but also provides emulsification in yogurt, and can make fat-containing The yogurt is smooth, round, and tastes better.
Chen, Ying-Ching and other studies found that PGA is a strong coagulant, which can promote the aggregation of milk proteins.