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Application of food additive calcium sulphate (gypsum) in baking
Wheat flour is a necessity in people's lives, and it is also the main raw material for foods such as bread, steamed bread, noodles, and pastries. Among them, the quality of flour is higher in the production of bread and pastries. Bread has rich nutritional value and good flavor, and is one of the most favorite foods in people's daily life. Special bread flour requires high gluten content and strong gluten, while the gluten content of wheat flour in my country is moderate or low, and the gluten is weak. Therefore, domestic bread flour manufacturers usually use collocation wheat and add bread improver for production. Flour improver refers to some natural or chemically synthesized substances that are added during the flour milling process or in the flour, can improve the quality of flour, improve the quality of food, color, aroma, taste and processing technology, and have antiseptic ability. There are mainly oxidants, reducing agents, enzyme preparations, emulsifiers, acidifiers and acidity regulators, bleaching agents, leavening agents, yeast foods and thickeners.
The usage of food additive calcium sulphate in traditional flour improver
There are two main uses of calcium sulphate in traditional flour improvers:
Used to dilute benzoyl peroxide in flour whitener
Benzoyl peroxide is one of the flour improvers with whitening effect. It is a general food additive for flour processing in China's flour processing industry. The main component is dibenzoyl oxide. It is white crystal or crystalline powder, odorless or slightly It has the odor of benzaldehyde (the greater the odor of benzaldehyde, the lower the purity of the modifier, the worse the effect). It melts and decomposes at 103℃～106℃. It is soluble in benzene, chloroform and acetone, but hardly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in water. It is a dangerous and highly reactive oxidizing substance, which will explode spontaneously after high temperature impact: generally use one or more of calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate, alum and starch as a carrier to dilute to 10% to 30%. With the improvement of people’s living standards, the requirements for food safety are getting higher and higher. Due to the toxicity of benzoyl peroxide, the Ministry of Health of China announced that from May 1, 2011, it is forbidden to produce and add to flour. Its same calcium peroxide will no longer be used for this purpose.
For the fortification of flour nutrition elements
When pursuing some special trace elements in flour, it is necessary to add a certain amount of nutritional supplements to the flour to meet special needs. Calcium has been specially improved in many foods. Among them, adding calcium to daily foods like flour can better meet people's needs for calcium. Calcium sulphate is used as one of the nutritional fortifiers in flour.
Use of calcium sulphate in new flour improver
As a new flour improver, there are four main uses of calcium sulphate
Improve water hardness
Water is one of the four basic raw materials for bread processing. Bread processing also has specific requirements for the water quality used. The quality of water is closely related to the bread processing process and final quality. Bread processing water requires moderate hardness, that is, 8-16 degrees. Too hard and too soft water is not suitable for bread processing.
Adjust the pH of the dough, provide a yeast growth environment, and improve enzyme activity.
Inorganic salts such as calcium sulphate can adjust the pH of the water so that the yeast can grow in an environment with an optimum pH of 5-6 and give full play to the activity of the yeast. When the calcium ions in the dough reach a certain concentration, the α-amylase can maintain the proper conformation, so as to maintain its maximum activity and stability. The α-amylase can break the long chain of starch and decompose it into dextrin and Small amounts of oligosaccharides, maltose and glucose. It can be used as a carbon source for yeast to produce CO2 and increase the volume of bread.
As a yeast food
Yeast occupies an important position in the production of bread, cakes and other doughs that require fermentation. It has many functions such as: biological leavening; dough gluten expansion; producing volatile organic compounds to give bread a special flavor. At present, the bread additives developed at home and abroad contain yeast foods such as ammonium salt and calcium salt to promote the reproduction and fermentation of yeast.
Similarly, calcium sulphate is generally applicable as a calcium fortifier for flour. Calcium sulphate is a very low-toxic food substance in food additives based on existing data (chemistry, biochemistry, toxicology, etc.).
Regulations and standards for calcium sulphate as a food additive in flour and its products
In the Chinese national standard GB2760-2007 "Hygienic Standards for the Use of Food Additives" Table A.1 The use range and use amount of food additives stipulates the use range and maximum use amount of calcium sulphate.
Function: stabilizer and coagulant, thickener, acidity regulator.
The similarities and differences between the two forms of calcium sulphate used in flour improvers,
The food additive calcium sulphate is used as a flour improver in two forms: one is raw gypsum, also known as calcium sulphate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O); the other is calcined gypsum, also known as anhydrous calcium sulphate (CaSO4). Anhydrous calcium sulphate is obtained by calcination of dihydrate calcium sulphate to remove two molecules of water. The difference between the two is as follows:
No. Item Calcium sulphate dihydrate Anhydrous calcium sulphate
1 The calcium content of the same quality 23.23% 24.37%
2 Sulfur content of the same mass 18.63% 19.54%
3 10% slurry pH 7 7--10
4 Water solubility at 10℃ g/100ml 0.190 0.193
5 Heat is released when exposed to water, no heat is released
6 Agglomerates in contact with water, does not agglomerate in about 30 minutes
7 production of natural gypsum processing the former calcining
It can be seen from the above table that we should pay attention to the following points when using the above two products:
① Because the two forms of calcium sulphate have different calcium and sulfur content, when the quality of calcium sulphate is the same, it can be seen from Table 1 that the added calcium sulphate dihydrate is more than anhydrous calcium sulphate.
②From Table 3 above, it can be seen that the pH of calcium sulphate dihydrate and anhydrous calcium sulphate are different after being dissolved in water. When using these two powders, they should consider their influence on the pH value of the dough, but their addition amount is very small. The pH of the anhydrous powder has little effect, and the slightly alkaline of the anhydrous powder will neutralize the acidity produced when it is fermented by yeast.
③When anhydrous calcium sulphate is dissolved, it will release heat, which helps to increase the initial temperature of the dough and is beneficial to the fermentation speed. It can agglomerate with water and has low solubility. It should be noted that the amount of water should be a little more when it is mixed with water and the water should be stirred to accelerate its dissolution to prevent agglomeration.
④The production of two kinds of powders, such as: fineness, moisture content; storage, such as: humidity, stack weight; have an impact on the dispersibility of the powder. The dispersibility of the two powder anhydrous calcium sulphate produced and stored under equal conditions is better than that of calcium sulphate dihydrate.
⑤The amount of calcium sulphate in flour improver is not much, generally 0.15%-1%. Therefore, the effects of the above two powders on the modifier in certain aspects are only considered qualitatively, such as the influence of solution pH, exothermic influence, agglomeration factors, etc.; only specific factors can be quantitatively investigated, such as: When used as a nutritional supplement, the calcium content and the large amount of use are the dispersibility of the powder and the amount of yeast food used.
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