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Maltodextrin is a low conversion product between starch and starch sugar. The appearance is white or slightly yellowish amorphous powder, without visible impurities, has a special smell, and the taste is not sweet or slightly sweet. Maltodextrin has a wide range of uses. In 1970, Ueberbacher made the following definition of maltodextrin: a product with starch as a raw material and controlled hydrolysis with a DE value below 20% is called maltodextrin. The definition in the United States is: a carbohydrate product obtained by hydrolysis, conversion and spray drying of corn starch raw materials. The Chinese definition is: starch derivatives without free starch made by low-degree enzymatic hydrolysis, refining, and spray drying using starch or starch as raw materials. According to the different DE value of its series of products, common product specifications are: MD10, MD15, MD20, etc.
The composition of maltodextrin is closely related to its hydrolysis process, starch type and the presence of other components in starch (such as protein, fat, etc.). Maltodextrins with different DE values have different functions and properties: such as thickening, gelling, reducing product sweetness, changing the freezing point of the system, inhibiting the growth of ice crystals, replacing fat, reducing heat energy, improving texture, and being used as a spray or drying agent Carrier etc. Maltodextrin is widely used in food production and its market prospects are very broad. How to use maltodextrin is one of the topics of interest to food production technicians:
1. Used to increase viscosity, enhance product dispersion and solubility. Maltodextrin has good emulsification and thickening effects. Used in soy milk, instant oatmeal, and malted milk extract to thicken, absorb odors, improve taste, and extend shelf life; in milk tea, fruit crystals, instant tea, solid tea, non-dairy milk, coffee mate, to increase mellowness and fineness , Fragrant and rich taste and reduce costs; in coconut milk juice, peanut and almond milk, various lactic acid drinks, enhance the emulsifying power, make the product stable, not easy to precipitate; in various cans or soups, it is used Thicken, improve structure, appearance and flavor.
2. Used to inhibit browning reaction
When there are a large amount of reducing sugars and proteins in the food system, high temperature treatment can easily cause mutation reactions. Due to the low DE value of maltodextrin, the degree of transformation reaction is small, and it can be used as an inert embedding material for microencapsulation of sensitive chemical substances, such as flavors, fragrances, and drugs.
3. Used as a carrier and coating film to keep fresh
The maltodextrin aqueous solution has no taste and has strong binding and binding effects. It can be used as an excellent carrier for various sweeteners, flavoring agents, fillers and pigments to ensure the pure flavor of the carried material. Maltodextrin with a lower DE value has strong film-forming or smearing properties, and can be used for fruit coating preservation.
4. For the preparation of functional foods
Maltodextrin is easily absorbed by the human body and can be used in functional milk powders for athletes, patients, infants and young children, such as sugar-free milk powder and sports drinks. The product volume expands, is not easy to agglomerate, dissolves quickly, has good preparation properties, and improves nutrient price.
5. Used to lower the freezing point;
In ice cream, ice cream, and popsicles, it can change the freezing point of the product without changing the soluble solid content of the system, inhibit the growth of ice crystals, make the ice particles swell and exquisite, have good viscous performance, mild sweetness, and clear mouth. Good taste.
6. Used to reduce the sweetness of the system
The addition of maltodextrin in the candy can reduce the sweetness of the system, increase the toughness of the candy, prevent sanding and burnout, improve the flavor of the system, and extend the shelf life. This is also of positive significance for preventing dental caries, hypertension and diabetes.
7. Replace fat
Maltodextrin can form a gel structure, retain water, and is often used as a texture modifier. When the DE value is 3~5, it can produce a fat-like texture and taste, which is a high-quality fat substitute. It is often used as a fat substitute for salads, ice cream, sausages, etc. It can also function as a substitute grease in powder grease.
8. Used to improve the structure and appearance of food
In biscuits or other convenience foods, the product entrance does not stick to the teeth, does not leave residue, the shape and appearance are clear, smooth, and full, reduce defective products, and extend the shelf life of the product.
What is the function of "maltodextrin" in food?
Let’s start with carbohydrates. Infants and young children are in a period of rapid growth and development, and they need sufficient energy to meet basic metabolism and growth and development. At this stage, babies need more protein, fat, carbohydrates and other nutrients than adults. The most common carbohydrates in infant foods are lactose, sucrose, maltodextrin, etc. There is no difference in the energy provided by these carbohydrates. Lactose is naturally present in the milk of mammals, and it is absorbed in the intestines after digestion with lactase. The activity of intestinal lactase is strongest in infants. With the increase of age, the activity of intestinal lactase tends to decrease gradually. In addition to the phenomenon of "lactose intolerance", the formula milk powder for older children such as children over 1 year old , Usually use maltodextrin and sucrose as the main carbohydrate sources.
Sucrose is a disaccharide, which is broken down into fructose and glucose in the digestive system of the human body. It is absorbed by the small intestine. Excessive sucrose is easy to cause tooth decay. Due to its high sweetness, excessive sucrose intake can easily develop a baby's bad habit of preferring sweets. .
Similar to corn syrup, maltodextrin is a kind of nutritious polysaccharide without taste, with many unique physical and chemical properties, such as good water solubility, boiling resistance and easy absorption by the body. These characteristics enable it to be used in the processing and production of various foods such as solid beverages, candies, biscuits, beer, baby food, and sports drinks. In terms of providing energy in infant nutrition, maltodextrin and other types of carbohydrates have no advantages or disadvantages, and are equivalent. In foreign countries, maltodextrin is also added to food to improve the nutritional ratio and make it easy to digest and absorb. The role of maltodextrin in formulating functional milk powders, especially sucrose-free milk powder, infant growth-promoting milk powder, etc. has been confirmed.
What needs attention is that the energy provided by the three major nutrients of carbohydrate, fat and protein in the diet of young children should follow a certain ratio. All three nutrients supply energy to the human body. In terms of quantity, protein supply generally accounts for 12% to 14% of energy, fat provides 30% to 35% of energy, and the rest is provided by carbohydrates. Theoretically speaking, as a carbohydrate that provides energy, the content of maltodextrin in the product is understandable as long as it is within the total allowable range of carbohydrates in the product, which means that maltodextrin does not exceed the carbohydrate. The total amount of compounds will not affect the ratio of other nutrients. From the perspective of nutrition, protein, fat, and carbohydrates are not partial and balanced, which is a nutritional feast for babies.
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