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Pectin is a kind of polysaccharide, and its composition has two types: homopolysaccharide and heteropolysaccharide. They are mostly found in plant cell walls and inner cell layers, and a large number of them are found in the peels of citrus, apple,lemon and grapefruit. White to yellow powder, relative molecular weight is about 20,000 to 400,000, odorless. It is more stable in acidic solution than in alkaline solution, and is usually divided into high-ester pectin and low-ester pectin according to its degree of esterification. High-ester pectin forms an irreversible gel in the range of soluble sugar content≥60% and pH=2.6～3.4. Part of the methyl ester of low-ester pectin is converted into primary amide, which is not affected by sugar and acid, but needs to be combined with divalent ions such as calcium and magnesium to form a gel.
Pectin is white or yellowish or light gray, light brown coarse powder to fine powder, almost odorless, slimy taste.
Pectin food additive
Pectin can be used as emulsifier, stabilizer, thickener, suitable for all kinds of food except fruit and vegetable juice according to production needs. The maximum usage amount in fruit and vegetable juice is 3.0g/kg, and the usage amount of solid beverage is increased according to the dilution multiple . Pectin can be used in the manufacture of jam and jelly; prevent cakes from hardening; improve the quality of cheese; make fruit juice powder, etc. High-ester pectin is mainly used in acidic jams, jellies, jelly, candy fillings and lactic acid bacteria drinks. Low-ester pectin is mainly used for general or low-acid jams, jellies, jelly and frozen desserts, salad dressings, ice cream, yogurt, etc.
Pectin has always been a part of human natural diet. It is a safe and non-toxic natural food additive recommended by the FAO/WHO Food Additives Joint Committee, and there is no daily addition limit. Pectin has many functions. For example, as a natural plant colloid, pectin can be widely used in the food industry as a gelling agent, stabilizer, tissue forming agent, emulsifier and thickening agent; and pectin is also a kind of This kind of water-soluble dietary fiber has the functions of enhancing gastrointestinal peristalsis and promoting nutrient absorption. It has a good curative effect on the prevention and treatment of diarrhea, intestinal cancer, diabetes, obesity and other diseases. It is an excellent base for pharmaceutical preparations; Gum is a good heavy metal adsorbent. This is because the molecular chains of pectin can form a "egg box"-like network structure with high-priced metal ions, which makes pectin have a good function of adsorbing heavy metals; in addition, fruit Glue has film-forming properties, good water holding capacity and radiation resistance.
Pectin uses in food industry
Pectin is used in the food industry as a food additive or ingredient. It mainly plays a role in gelling, thickening, improving texture, emulsifying and stabilizing.
(1) Yogurt products
In the production process of yogurt, different types of pectin have different functions. For example, adding high-fat pectin can stabilize the structure of yogurt, while adding low-methoxy pectin can prevent the precipitation of whey. In the process of making yogurt, the dosage of pectin needs to be strictly controlled. Once a sufficient amount of additives is not added, the charge will be neutralized and the repulsive force will disappear. The structure of the dairy product cannot be stabilized, so it can only be added continuously. After a new repulsive force is generated, the structure of the acidic dairy product can remain stable.
If the pectin content in the raw material is too small when producing jam, then the thickening effect of pectin can be used, and 0.20% pectin can be used as a thickening agent. The amount of pectin used in low-sugar jam is about 0.60%. The formula of low-sugar strawberry jam is 50.00% strawberries, 36.00% sugar, 13.00% water, 0.60% amidated low methoxy pectin and 0.40% citric acid. In the above recipe of strawberry jam, amidated low-methoxy pectin or methoxy pectin can be used, because fruits and water contain a certain amount of calcium ions, so there is no need to add calcium salt.
High methoxy pectin has strong water absorption, which can not only increase the amount of dough, but also improve the freshness, stability and softness of the dough. Because the dough after adding pectin has better ductility, the baking volume of bread will increase. For example, in the production of hamburgers, if the volume of the hamburger is kept unchanged, but after adding pectin, the amount of flour used to make the same volume of hamburger will be reduced by 30%. In addition, bread made from dough with added pectin can extend the selling time of bread. 
As people pay more attention to healthy diet, low-sugar beverages in the market have become more and more popular today, but the taste of the beverage decreases after the sweetness of the beverage decreases. In this regard, the taste of the beverage can be increased by adding 0.05% to 0.10% of high methoxy pectin. High methoxy pectin is a kind of suspending agent. When it is added to beverages containing pulp, it can gelate with calcium ions, thereby reducing the hard substances caused by pulp precipitation and making the fruit particles evenly suspended in the beverage. It can also improve the taste of fruit juice, not only overcomes the shortcomings of sodium alginate, such as poor pseudoplasticity, large gumy smell, and large turbidity, but also plays a health role in strengthening the stomach and being exposed to lead poisoning. 
Health food and medicine
Pectin is a polysaccharide substance that helps control blood sugar and blood lipids. At present, there are products that use pectin in domestic medicines and health products, but the amount of pectin is not large.
Different from other dietary fibers, the structural properties of pectin make it have good water solubility and high viscosity. This soluble dietary fiber can remove food additives and metal residues from the human system.
In addition, pectin can also be used in plastic wrap, diapers, cosmetics and toothpaste by using its good water holding capacity and radiation resistance.
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