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Guar gum is a natural non-ionic polysaccharide, high molecular weight vegetable gum, which was first extracted from the endosperm of guar seeds produced in India and Pakistan.
Because it has good water solubility and crosslinking properties, and can form a stable aqueous solution with high viscosity at low concentrations, it is widely used as a thickener, stabilizer and adhesive in the daily chemical industry.
In order to reduce the water-insoluble content of guar gum, speed up its hydration, and improve its salt resistance and shear resistance, many researchers have carried out chemical modification and processing by derivatizing its functional groups.
Application of guar gum in food industry
The ability of guar gum to bind with a large amount of water makes it widely used as food additive in the food industry. In the food industry, guar gum mainly plays the role of thickening and holding water. The specific applications in several common foods are as follows:
Guar gum plays a role in stabilizing the system by improving and controlling the properties of water in food. Used in various frozen dairy and non-dairy products, it can prevent ice crystals from forming during freezing and thawing, giving the product a smooth, creamy texture, and improving the chewing feeling. In addition, guar gum can also prevent the product from melting too quickly, thereby extending the product shelf life.
The use of guar gum (0.2%-0.5%) in ice cream can prevent the formation of granular ice crystals, and at the same time control the formation of large ice crystals and lactose crystals, improve product stability, especially resistance to melting and sudden heat It is obviously superior to other colloids in improving the taste, and can give the ice cream a smooth and waxy taste.
The compound emulsion stabilizer used in ice cream has different formulas. The dosages formulated by Chen Weiyong and others are guar gum 0.14%, xanthan gum 0.02%, carrageenan 0.03%, CMC-Na 0.06%; Zhou Li and other formulas Guar gum 0.15%, xanthan gum 0.1%, carrageenan 0.012%, gelatin 0.15%; Liu Liangzhong, etc. mixed konjac powder and guar gum into a binary compound additive in a ratio of 3:2 and added a certain proportion of single Glyceryl ester forms a compound stabilizer, and by adding compound stabilizer ice cream, better expansion rate and melting resistance can be obtained, and the overall quality of the product is improved.
In a variety of baked goods, guar gum can give dough excellent film properties, especially products made of low-gluten flour, bread products have good water holding capacity, soft texture and high volume expansion. When guar gum is added to cake and biscuit dough, the product will become softer and have a better shape. At the same time, it will not break easily when slicing. It can also shorten the mixing time of the batter and improve the internal structure.
Guar gum is used in fruit juice products to ensure that the pulp is evenly distributed during canning and storage, and improves the taste. In addition, guar gum can coordinate the suspension of the particles in the pulp beverage and effectively combine with emulsifiers.
Zhao Rongzhong and others compounded xanthan gum and different colloids to act on peanut milk and found that when xanthan gum and guar gum (1:2 compound) are added to peanut milk at 0.5‰, they can maintain the best stability ; Adding carrageenan 0.545‰, CMC 0.503‰, and guar gum 0.562‰ to the lactic acid bacteria beverage can achieve the best stabilizing effect of active lactic acid bacteria beverage.
In addition, when guar gum is added to yam mixed juice, Pleurotus eryngii and peanut compound protein beverage, and apricot pulp solid beverage, its stability is not ideal when it is mixed with xanthan gum and pectin in a certain proportion. The best stability of the product.
In the production of canned food, guar gum is widely used as a viscosity regulator, processing aid and protective hydrosol. It can reduce product loss caused by material splashing during processing, is that the material can be easily pumped to the canning equipment, and can ensure that the canning process is accurately controlled, and assist in the formation of a homogeneous dispersion. The final product has no fat migration, has a good suspension state, and is stable in storage.
In the production of flowing salad dressings, guar gum is usually used in combination with yellow raw materials. The basic property of guar gum that produces high viscosity at low concentrations makes the texture and rheology of these products more sensory. excellent. Guar gum helps to improve mouthfeel, regulate fluidity, solid suspension and adhesion. Due to its excellent cold and hot hydrolysis, it can be effectively used in instant products such as soups, seasonings, instant drinks, and sweets.
In soft cheese processing, guar gum can control the consistency and spreading properties of the product. Because guar gum can combine with water, the product can be evenly coated.
Adding pectin 0.25‰, carrageenan 0.15‰, and guar gum 0.55‰ to yogurt can improve the viscosity and sensory quality of fermented yogurt.
Guar gum is beneficial to improve the sensory quality of meat products, reduce product hardness, and enhance gel properties. Li Haimei and others studied the effect of guar gum on the formation of silver carp surimi gel and found that adding 0.1% guar gum in the production of silver carp surimi can increase the hardness and gel strength of the surimi gel, reduce the viscosity and brittleness, and improve Product color; Zhao Mouming and others added konjac gum and guar gum to the production of pork preserved. When 0.24% konjac gum and 0.16% guar gum are added, the eating quality and storage performance of the pork shop is the best. At the same time, the product has the highest sensory score, the lowest water activity, and the hardness, tackiness, chewiness, etc. can achieve the best results.
Soy products need to add coagulants, stabilizers, etc. during the production process. Guar gum can affect the gelation process of the protein. Li Meng et al. compounded magnesium chloride and guar gum in a certain ratio (approximately 4.9:1) in the production of tofu and found that the addition of guar gum increased the rate of the first stage of the coagulation process, and changed the texture characteristics and hardness of tofu. Significantly decreased. Gong Yuhong et al. determined that the optimal addition ratio for delaying the aging of bean paste is xanthan gum 2‰ and guar gum 3‰ through the anti-aging research on red kidney bean paste. The addition of guar gum can improve the processing characteristics of soy products and act as a quality improver.
Guar gum has a very broad prospect. At present, it can be used as a natural water-soluble fiber in foods, and can also be used in low-fat or non-fat foods to effectively improve its taste and texture.