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Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is abbreviated as CMC-Na. It is a white to light yellow powder, granular or fibrous substance. It is highly hygroscopic and easily soluble in water. When it is neutral or alkaline, the solution is a high-viscosity liquid. Stable to drugs, light and heat. However, the heat is limited to 80℃. If it is heated above 80℃ for a long time, the viscosity will decrease and it will not dissolve in water. Its relative density is 1.60, and the relative density of flakes is 1.59. The refractive index is 1.515. It is brown when heated to 190～205℃, and carbonized when it is 235～248℃. Its solubility in water depends on the degree of substitution. It is insoluble in acid and alcohol, and does not precipitate when exposed to salt. It is not easy to ferment, has great emulsifying power for oil and wax, and can be stored for a long time.
carboxymethyl cellulose food grade uses as food additive in food indstry:
Application in dairy products
(1) Applied research in acidic beverages
Acidic milk beverages have a unique sweet and sour flavor and have a wide market. But in the production process, casein will aggregate and destabilize under acidic conditions. Therefore, polysaccharides are generally added to protect casein, stabilize the system and ensure a good taste at the same time. The mechanism by which sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a polysaccharide can stabilize acidic milk beverages can be described as: during the acid adjustment process, when the pH value is 5.2, CMC-Na begins to adsorb on the surface of the casein colloidal particles, and its effect is similar Under neutral conditions, the effect of κ-casein, the electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance of the adsorption layer maintain the stable existence of casein micelles, and CMC-Na has a thickening effect, which can reduce the sedimentation rate of protein particles. The results show that at low pH values, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose needs a certain concentration; and below this concentration, the system will lose stability. At pH 3.6 to 4.6, lower pH systems require more sodium carboxymethyl cellulose to stabilize. Compared with the acid-modified type, fermented acidic milk beverages require higher stabilizers.
The acidic milk beverage containing fruit particles is to add a certain amount of fruit particles to the milk beverage, and also need to add stabilizers to stabilize the system. The experiment shows that the acidic milk-containing beverage uses CMC-Na as the main stabilizer. The stability of the system is better when CMC-Na accounts for 0.4% of the compound stabilizer and 0.14% of pectin.
Scholars have also studied the application of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in lycopene active drinks to stabilize the system. Studies have shown that when the amount of CMC-Na added is greater than 0.4%, the product has good stability, but the viscosity is greatly increased at this time, so it can be used in combination with other colloids.
After the traditional sour milk beverage is optimized by the CMC-Na cooling material process, the viscosity of the product is always higher than that of the heating material during the shelf life, and it has better stability. This is also a carboxylate product. The better application of sodium methylcellulose in the production of acidic milk beverages provides a theoretical basis.
(2) Application in stirred yogurt
The denaturation and precipitation of milk protein under acidic conditions has always been a key issue affecting the development of yogurt. Because CMC-Na has multifunctional properties, abundant sources and low price, it is mostly used as a stabilizer.
The results show that CMC-Na is greatly affected by temperature and pH value. When the addition amount of CMC-Na is small, the state of yogurt cannot be stabilized. When its content is greater than 0.4%, the state of yogurt is improved and the system tends to be stable; and at 0.05 At %~0.1%, CMC-Na has a small thickening effect on yogurt, but in a larger content range (0.4%~0.5%), the thickening effect is significant.
(3) Application in casein emulsion
Emulsion is a dispersion system composed of a liquid dispersed in another immiscible liquid in the form of very small droplets, which is an unstable system. Among many food gums, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum have been studied in depth due to their unique functional properties. The results show that the combination of CMC-Na and XG (xanthan gum) can make the system more stable. Under a certain compounding ratio (CMC-Na:XG is 1:1, 3:1), the total added amount is 0.4% of the total mass of the emulsion, and the layering stability of the emulsion will increase. Store at room temperature for 2 weeks. The delamination is not obvious.
Application in making bread and steamed bread
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has a certain degree of hydrophilicity and rehydration, so it is used in the production of noodle products.
(1) Application in bread
Due to the hydrophilic group in carboxymethyl cellulose sodium, it can combine with water to form a hydrophilic colloid and swell with water during mixing. After swelling, CMC-Na can increase the water holding capacity of gluten, which is conducive to the awakening of bread. The retention of carbon dioxide during the hair and baking process will increase the volume of the bread, but the amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose cannot exceed 6%. Due to its strong water retention, a suitable addition amount can reduce the hardness of bread. The experiment shows that adding an appropriate amount (2% to 8%) of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can significantly improve the quality of baked bread. The effect is best when added 6%, followed by 4%. It can increase the volume of bread, improve the structure and flavor of bread, and extend the shelf life of bread. This makes it possible to add sodium carboxymethyl cellulose to bread and improve the quality of bread.
(2) Application in making steamed bread
The addition of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose has little effect on the pH value of wheat steamed bread dough. Studies have shown that sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can effectively improve the texture of wheat steamed bread, effectively reduce the hardness, stickiness and chewiness of steamed bread, and When the amount of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose added was 0.06%~0.08%, each texture index performed best. However, the application of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose in steamed bread is still less, which also provides the possibility for its application in new fields and can increase its application range.
Food thickeners have the characteristics of thickening, thickening, stability, salt resistance and temperature resistance, and are widely used in food seasonings. Some scholars have studied the selection of thickeners and process optimization in the preparation of natural meat flavors, and the results show that 5% carboxymethyl cellulose is selected as the colloid of meat flavors, dissolved in a water bath at 60~70 ℃, stirred for 30 minutes, and the colloids are dissolved. After that, it is swollen after being placed for 24 to 48 hours and then used to prepare meat MSG. The product has good thickening properties, colorless and tasteless.
Because of its thickening effect, sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can be used to make jam. Through experiments, the best process for making water chestnut tomato sauce is 1.9% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, 0.8% citric acid, 4% white sugar, and the ratio of water chestnut sauce to tomato sauce is 1:1. The taste is good and stable.
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose can also be used to make beverages. Corn beverages are prone to stratification and precipitation during storage, and the combination of CMC and sodium alginate can improve stability. When adding 0.05% sodium carboxymethylcellulose and sodium alginate, the precipitation rate of corn beverage is the smallest, the layering after centrifugation is not obvious, and the stability is good, which also laid a certain foundation for the development of corn beverage market . Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose is also used in the production of ice cream and the clarification of alcohol.